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Make bread as follows:

Measure 1/2 cup very warm water
Add 1 tbsp sugar
Add 1 pkg dry yeast. Mix well and set aside.

Melt 1/2 cup shortening. Set aside.

Sift 8 cups flour
Add 1 1/2 tsp salt
Add 1/2 cup sugar

Place 2 cups very warm water into mixing bowl.
Add water, sugar, yeast mixture. Stir.
Add melted shortening. Stir.
Add flour mixture, about 1 cup at a time, mixing thoroughly after each addition.

Flour a board, put the dough onto the board, sprinkle the top of dough with more flour, and knead by hand until dough is smooth and elastic. Place dough into a greased mixing bowl, turn over the dough to grease the top side, cover with clean, damp cloth, and set aside (out of any draft) for about 2 hours, until dough has doubled in bulk.

By examining the dough, you will see that there are holes in it caused by gas bubbles. The gas (carbon dioxide) is produced by the action of the yeast on the sugar. This
process is called fermentation.

Put the raised dough back onto the floured board, and knead again for a few minutes. The dough will become "flat." Divide the dough into three parts, shape into loaves, place each loaf into a greased bread pan, cover with a clean, damp cloth, and set aside to rise, for about 1 hour. After dough has again doubled in bulk, place into pre-heated oven at 350o for 40 minutes.

Remove from oven, using pot holders (oven mitts), and tip the loaf from the pan into your hand. Pound gently on the bottom, and if it sounds "hollow," it is done. Wait until it cools a bit before slicing.

At the same time, another student can make this recipe, but without yeast. Notice the differences in the way the dough looks feels, smells, and tastes.

While making bread, be sure all equipment is clean and that your hands are washed thoroughly. As you work with the bread dough, describe how it feels.

Making bread is very satisfying, and the activity can become a hobby and even a habit. Making bread satisfies our basic need to provide. The act of kneading bread is called "Grandma's Tranquilizer." How about that! A science project that is comforting!

Making bread is also a science. You will find, if you do it frequently, that the heat and humidity of the day will demand changes in the amount of flour you use. The freshness of yeast will make a difference in the length of time it takes to raise your dough. The area in which you live will have an effect on the rising of your dough, because of the wild yeast that is present in the air.

This same dough can be used to make dinner rolls. After raising it one time, divide the dough into three portions. Roll with a rolling pin, until the dough is about 1/2 inch
thick. Cut with biscuit cutter, place dough "discs" into greased cake pans, cover with clean, damp cloth, and allow to raise for about an hour. Bake at 425o for 15 minutes.
Remove from pans immediately. Just tip them onto a plate.

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