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When we examined leaves and stems, we talked a little bit
about flowers on some trees growing out of nodes, and later,
leaves grow from the same nodes. People who study plants
("botanists") have names for every kind of plant part. Some
names are used for many things, and then are made special by
added words. There are names, and other words, that are used
when describing plants that are also used in different kinds
of studies.

One example of sharing words and names is the word
"appendage" (pronounced "ap-pend-age"). Your fingers are
appendages of your hands. Ears are appendages of your head.
To make the word "appendage" more special to each kind of
appendage, we say that your fingers are "jointed appendages"
and your ears are "unjointed appendages." Why do you think
that is?

Anything that grows out from something else, and is an
important part of the main body, can be called an appendage.
On a tree, the limbs are appendages; on the limbs, the twigs,
or smaller stems that grow from the limbs, are appendages of
the limbs. The leaves that grow from the stems are
appendages, and so are the flowers. Leaves and flowers are
both appendages of stems, but they are very different from
each other.

We must be like trees. Our bodies, between the tops of our
legs and the beginning of our necks, are called "trunks,"
just like the main stem of a tree. Our legs and arms are
called "limbs." Legs are "lower limbs" and arms are "upper
limbs." Our heads are appendages of our trunks. Our noses
are also appendages. Instead of bark on our outside, we have
skin. Our homes and families are sometimes called our roots.
What part of your body do you think would be a flower? Your

Let's look at some leaves and flowers on the same stem, and
see what their differences are. One difference is that above
the petiole of the leaf, there is always a bud. Sometimes
the bud is so tiny you can't see it, but each leaf has a bud
above it. Flowers do not have buds above them. Another
difference is that the distance between leaf nodes on stems
becomes farther as the plant grows, but the distance between
flower nodes does not. As a plant grows, the stems get
longer, and they will have more flowers, the same distance
apart as when it was young. The stems will have close to the
same number of leaves, but they will be farther and farther
apart. This means that leaf internodes get longer over time,
but flower internodes do not.

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